Hatred, on the contrary, cannot be so small but it hurts, and it is never without sadness. I say it cannot be too small because we are not incited by hatred to any action, but what we may be by love of the good contrary to it; at least, when this good and evil are enough understood. For I confess that the hatred of evil which is not manifested but by pain, is necessary in respect of the body. But I speak here of that which proceeds from a more clear knowledge, and I attribute it only to the soul. I say also, that it is never without sadness, because evil being but a privation, it cannot be conceived without some real subject wherein it is, and there is nothing real but has some goodness in it, so that the hatred which make us refrain from evil, does also make us refrain from the good whereunto it is annexed; and the privation of this good, being represented to our soul as a defect in her, excites sadness. For example, the hatred which makes us refrain from the evil manners of anyone, does by the same means, make us refrain from his conversation, wherein we might otherwise find some good, which we are vexed to be deprived of. And so in all other kinds of hatred some subject of sadness may be observed.